Tourism Tourist motivation sometimes appears by many freelance writers as one of the key elements in understanding traveler decision-making behaviour. A sound knowledge of travel motivation performs a crucial role in predicting future travel design. The big response to the basic question, "why do people travel?
The hierarchy of needs proposed by Maslow can be represented as under: Physiological — hunger, thirst, rest, activity 2. Belonging and love — affection, giving and receiving love 4. Esteem — self-esteem the need to exhibit strength, achievement, mastery, competence, and independence and esteem from others described by notions such as reputation, prestige, status, and recognition Image Source: Maslow travel motivation the above list it is clear that the needs are mainly psychological in nature except that of the first one, which is physical in nature.
To this list of needs, two specific needs were added later which are intellectual in essence. Acquisition of knowledge-to learn and understand Aesthetics — appreciation of beauty Although the relationship between the above said three types of needs — physical, psychological and intellectual is ill-defined, it is considered that the intellectual needs stand on their own.
For such travellers, the motivation may be to get physical or mental relaxation.
Holidayers generally return home from a tour mentally revitalized and refreshed but physically exhausted. And here arises the need to differentiate between people opting to undertake an active holiday or a passive one, though both are motivated by a need for relieving stress and strains.
The active holidayer achieves the objective of reduction in tension through physical activity. On the contrary, a passive holidayer tries to achieve the objective of tension relief by giving in or surrendering to the surrounding environment.
This proposition also well explains the fact that, at any one time, one may be motivated to satisfy multiple needs. Moreover, drawing on the idea of prepotency, that is, before the satisfaction of higher-level needs are considered, the lower-level needs in hierarchy framework should be satisfied to a level, implies that products and services including holidays targeted towards the satisfaction of lower -level needs would be deemed as more of a necessity than a luxury and would, as such, be more resilient to external pressures of time and money.
The desire for a pro tem escape and change of environment proposed by Gray as the central motivation for tourism has received endorsement in several following studies. And these socio-psychic factors, with novelty and education as the primary cultural motives, have been made out in the works of Crompton and Dahn Several large-scale empirical studies and surveys have rightly corroborated the aforesaid views of the scholars.
The study of travel motivation is basic and indispensable in tourism since it provides the logic, the rationale and purpose responsible for any tourism development plan.
In this context, Stanley C.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Travel Needs. Maslow’s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. The Maslow motivation theory is one of the best known theories on workplace motivation.
Here are the essentials of his influential 'Hierarchy of Needs'.
A review of the travel literature reveals that travel motivations can fit well into Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model (). The model suggests that lower needs in the order of hierarchy warrant priority attention and satisfaction – Maslow’s idea of prepotency.
The hierarchy of needs proposed. The Maslow theory of motivation brought a new face to the study of human behaviour. Maslow was inspired by greatness in the minds of others, and his own special contribution to the field of motivational psychology led to the creation of the concept of Humanistic Psychology.
Maslow’s of needs theory as applied to tourism field has been one of the significant main point in travel motivation research, as we said that before this study also highlights the two conceptual framework in understanding travel motivation; travel career leader (TCL) and travel career pattern (TCP).
Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation asserts that humans are motivated by a hierarchy of needs: They act to fulfill basic survival needs before addressing more advanced needs or wants. This hierarchy is shaped like a pyramid, with the lower levels occupied by physical, physiological needs such as.